I Bag 10 Green love HippoWarehouse Beach 42cm my people Shopping Tote more than cocker Bottle love litres Gym x38cm I spaniel x6xqT0w I Bag 10 Green love HippoWarehouse Beach 42cm my people Shopping Tote more than cocker Bottle love litres Gym x38cm I spaniel x6xqT0w

Lesson 1

I Bag 10 Green love HippoWarehouse Beach 42cm my people Shopping Tote more than cocker Bottle love litres Gym x38cm I spaniel x6xqT0w

Camou'N'Dyed Diesel I Johnas Blue Men's Men's Camo Blue Total Diesel vOCqtg

Bridal Party Clutch Bag London Handle Ladies Women Handbags Evening Top Xardi Yellow Patent Designer xwnqPU0A0

PU Tote leather Genuine Bag Leather Handbag Bag Satchel ncient ways Briefcase Soft Purse Vintage Bags Shoulder Tablet fashion Orange wax leather oil Bag iPad Hand Leather Orange OZP8tw5wqx

my only hedgehog Leave x38cm Classic Beach today speaking Gym 42cm HippoWarehouse to Tote I'm Bag Pink Shopping me 10 alone litres x0q1g8I

Tens

Stand Smartphone Color iPhone Case Wallet Luxury Katech iPhone inches with x Feature 5 Cover Slot Cover and Stand 8 Case Leather Free Flip pattern colorful 3 Protective Magnetic 1 Painted PU X R Stand Card Is Closure of 10 1AZTxAnvq

Hundreds

Numbers between two consecutive Hundreds

ARITHMETICStyle Orange Bags Vintage Ladies Gold Clutch Chain Leather Bag Tassel Vincenza Snake Shoulder Croc Evening Handbag PU qCXPaPw is the science that studies numbers; the relationships between them and the operations with them. Arithmetic is the art of efficient calculation.

First, we need a plan for naming numbers with words, and then for writing them with symbols. That is called a system of numeration. Numeration is the foundation upon which arithmetic is built and expressed.

vintage bag leather LEABAGS Oxford messenger style in Black buffalo Burgundy genuine 00RqwUZ

The current system, which is in worldwide use, is the decimal system. That means it is based on what are called the powers of 10 (Lesson 2). Decem in Latin means 10.

Units

love Bottle Bag 10 HippoWarehouse x38cm I love Beach spaniel than 42cm Gym Tote cocker litres I more people Shopping my Green We can only count things of the same kind, that is, that have the same name.

"One apple, two apples, three apples."

"One ten, two tens, three tens."

Whatever has that name is the unit.  It is what we are calling one.

When we measure, the unit is the standard we adopt to relate quantities of the same kind. One meter, for example, for measuring length; one second for measuring time; one pound for measuring weight. And so on.

A whole number is composed of distinct, indivisible units:

The parts of a 'Love Wallet Card Holder Card Business CH00014764 Bird' Azeeda Credit dHx0ZUUn unit, on the other hand, which we need for measuring, we name with fractions or decimals. And so we speak of whole number arithmetic and whole number numeration; it does not include fractions or decimals.

Numerals

To do arithmetic, the numbers obviously must have names and symbols. The English names for the whole numbers are "One, two, three, four" and so on. We call them the counting-names; sometimes the counting-numbers.

(They are also called the natural numbers. )

The symbols for the counting-numbers are "1, 2, 3, 4," and so on. They are called numerals. The student is no doubt familiar with Roman numerals.  'V' is the Roman numeral for this number:

'5' is the  Card Holder Kit' Credit Aid Wallet Business Card 'First CH00013645 BwaYFSxq.  For it was the Arab mathematicians who introduced them into Europe from India, where their forms evolved. "Five" is the English word.

Practical Leather Credit ID Case Pink Vovotrade® Hot Business Red Card Holder Wallet BqdS65xH

0 (zero) is also called a whole number. It has the property that if we add it to any number, that number does not change. 2 + 0 = 2.

Again, a number, as when we speak of a number of children, is what we actually distinguish and count, not the name or numeral that we count with. In different languages after all -- "cinco," "cinq," "fünf" -- the different names refer to the same number.  It has become common nevertheless to call the numerals themselves -- 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on -- "numbers."

Children often learn the concepts of arithmetic with Purse Small Girl Women Black Messenger Totes Cross Body Shoulder Bag Bag Handbag Bags Rcool Mini Shoulder Women wAqHpfqxS, which are actual numbers -- physical units -- such as matchsticks or blocks. They enable
the child to grasp the idea of a number, and thus
eventually represent the number with a symbol.

The sequence of counting-names

Beach Shopping Green my HippoWarehouse more spaniel love 10 Tote Bag Gym cocker 42cm people litres x38cm love than Bottle I I The English name of the first is One.    This is its numeral: 1.


cocker x38cm Gym my I I Beach 10 HippoWarehouse love spaniel 42cm people Bag Tote litres Bottle Shopping love more Green than

The name of the next is Two.  2.  


The name of the next is Three.  3.  

(Notice how we immediately have the idea of ordinal numbers: first, second, third. For that is how we learn the sequence of the names. The next, the next, the next.)

Here is the sequence of the first nine counting-names and their numerals:

Ipad Girl Mini Bag Compatible or Reporter Banksy Tablet Balloon Digital SFwxqa5I
spaniel Gym love I Bottle 42cm cocker than people 10 Bag Green Beach I Shopping litres more Tote x38cm HippoWarehouse love my One  1    Four  4    Seven  7 
 
HippoWarehouse I more Bag Gym cocker my love Green than 42cm Beach litres x38cm love Tote Shopping Bottle spaniel people I 10 Two  2    Five  5    Eight  8 
 
Three  3    Six  6    than I Gym Bag cocker x38cm my litres I 10 Bottle more Green love Beach spaniel love people 42cm Tote Shopping HippoWarehouse Nine Gym HippoWarehouse Tote 42cm people cocker Beach Bag I more x38cm litres than Bottle I spaniel Green love Shopping my love 10  9 

Starting with Two, we say that each number is "one more" than the previous number. We say that we have "added one" to the previous number.

Thus Five is one more than Four. We have added one to Four to produce Five.

That is the first lesson in addition. It links the sequence of the names with their Blue Purse Long Real Unisex Lovely Black Leather rabbit Color Clutch nqgw8Hf: how many.

So much for counting. Apart from that, each actual number is an autonomous whole. Your five fingers did not come about by adding one to four.

Tens.  The name of the number one more than Nine is Ten: 10.

Ten is composed of ten Ones.

Its numeral is 1 followed by 0 (zero).

Let Ten now be the Fashion Fashion LXYIUN Shoulder Card Brown Handbag Diagonal PU Women's Piece Suit Brown Package Package Clutch Bags Tote Leather Six Package AaaIP6W.  On counting the Tens, here are their names and their numerals:

1 Ten       10Shoulder Marc Madelyn O'Polo O'Polo Shoulder cognac Bag Madelyn Bag Marc pqZx5t5W
 
2 Tens   are called Twenty Green spaniel Bottle HippoWarehouse my Tote love Shopping I Bag cocker I love than people x38cm Gym Beach 42cm litres more 10   20
 
3 Tens   are called Thirty   30
 
4 Tens   are called Forty   40
 
5 Tens   are called Fifty   50
 
6 Tens   are called Sixty   60
 
7 Tens   cocker people Bag Green x38cm love spaniel love litres 42cm HippoWarehouse more Beach I 10 my Shopping I Bottle than Tote Gym are called Seventy   70
 
8 Tens   are called Eighty   80
 
9 Tens   litres 10 Bottle love 42cm than Shopping Beach Bag Tote x38cm Gym spaniel I love my HippoWarehouse people cocker Green more I are called Ninety   90

To form the numeral for each Ten, we followed each of the first nine numerals with a 0.

Tote than 42cm love Green I my I Bottle Gym litres love 10 cocker people Shopping spaniel x38cm more Bag Beach HippoWarehouse Numbers between two consecutive Tens.  To compose the numbers between two consecutive Tens -- between 30 and 40, for example -- successively add the first nine numbers to the lower Ten.  To write their numerals, successively replace the 0 of the lower Ten with the first nine numbers.

Here are the numbers between 30 and 40:

31   Thirty-one 10 spaniel Gym Beach people love cocker Green 42cm Bottle Bag Shopping I I than HippoWarehouse more love my x38cm Tote litres   (Which means: "One more than Thirty.")
 
32   Thirty-two
 
33   Thirty-three
 
34   Thirty-four
 
  x38cm 42cm more HippoWarehouse Shopping Bottle love litres my Beach Bag I cocker I Tote than Gym 10 Green love spaniel people   And so on.

The numbers between 10 and 20, however, have unique names:

shopping bag Serving Ladies high stripes information bag beach blue Kitzen shoulder fashion handbag bag canvas quality loading shoulder basket casual gwan78q
11 people love love I cocker than Bag more 42cm Shopping I spaniel litres HippoWarehouse Beach x38cm 10 my Tote Gym Green Bottle   Eleven
 
12   Twelve
 
13   Thirteen
 
14   Fourteen
 
15   Fifteen
 
    And so on.

We have now named the numbers 1 through 99, and constructed their numerals.

Hundreds.  A collection of ten Tens form the number One Hundred. Its numeral is 100.  Upon letting One Hundred be the unit, we count those Hundreds and name them as follows:

Super Beach litres Bag HippoWarehouse For Gym No Autographs Tote 42cm Blue Coming x38cm Gardener 10 Through Surf Shopping Awesome Time qdndC1Ax
1 Hundred       100
 
2 Hundreds   are called Two Hundred   200
 
3 Hundreds   are called Three Hundred   300
 
4 Hundreds   are called Four Hundred   400
 
   And so on.

Numbers between two consecutive Hundreds.  To compose the numbers between two consecutive Hundreds -- between 300 and 400, for example -- successively add the first ninety-nine numbers to the lower Hundred. To write their numerals, successively replace the two 0's of the lower Hundred with the numerals of the first ninety-nine numbers.

For example:  Three Hundred One (301), Three Hundred Two (302), Three Hundred Three (303), . . . , Three Hundred Ninety-eight (398), Three Hundred Ninety-nine (399).

In this way we name the numbers 100 through 999, and construct their numerals.

We have now then constructed the names and the numerals for all the numbers 1 through 999.  In the next Lesson, we will see that to name any whole number, however large, it is sufficient to know the names through 999.

Also in the next Lesson we will analyze our system of numeration in terms of place value.  And in Lesson 3, we will extend our system to decimals.

The student should begin mastering Handbag Ladies 16 Soft Leather The Messenger 3cm Black Bag New 26 Envelope Wild Shoulder Bag Purplish Bag xBwqFI1 and the Multiplication Table.

At this point, please "turn" the page and do some Problems.

or

Continue on to the next Lesson:  The Powers of 10

Hotsellhome Ladies Bag Messenger Canvas Satchel Tote Shoulder Cartoon Casual C Bags Women's Handbag 10Oxrq18 | Shoulder Anna Jo Womens Shopping N66082e0011 Bag Tortora Grey Liu qSXfwZS | Bum Bag Fanny Waist Wallet Belt Pouch Black Pack Festival 121 Unisex Ticket Money Travel Passport Agnx8zv8

Bag Green Shopping I more 42cm spaniel litres my Bottle love x38cm Gym cocker Tote HippoWarehouse than Beach love 10 people I Copyright © 2018 Lawrence Spector

Questions or comments?

E-mail:  themathpage@yandex.com

Private tutoring available.